Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2009; 17(2): 113-124  
How Environmental Agents Influence the Aging Process
Meryl H. KAROL*
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Received: April 15, 2009; Revised: April 21, 2009; Accepted: April 22, 2009; Published online: April 30, 2009.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Aging is a multifaceted biological process that affects all organs and organ systems of the body. This review provides an up-to-date analysis of this highly exciting, rapidly changing field of science. The aging process is largely under genetic control but is highly responsive to diverse environmental influences. The genes that control aging are those that are involved with cell maintenance, cell damage and repair. The environmental factors that accelerate aging are those that influence either damage of cellular macro-molecules, or interfere with their repair. Prominent among these are chronic inflammation, chronic infection, some metallic chemicals, ultraviolet light, and others that heighten oxidative stress. Other environment factors slow the aging process. Included among these agents are resveratrol and vitamin D. In addition, dietary restriction and exercise have been found to extend human lifespan. The various mechanisms whereby all these agents exert their influence on aging include epigenetic modification, chromatin maintenance, protection of telomeres, and anti-oxidant defense, among others. The complex process of aging remains under continued, intense investigation.
Keywords: Aging, Environment, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Heavy metals, Resveratrol, Calorie restriction

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