The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2011; 19(1): 9-20  
Neuroadaptations Involved in Long-Term Exposure to ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Alterations That Support Dependence Liability of These Medications
Ike C. dela Pe?a1, Hyung Seok Ahn1, Chan Young Shin2 and Jae Hoon Cheong1,*
1Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742, 2Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea
Jae Hoon Cheong
Received: October 18, 2010; Revised: November 23, 2010; Accepted: November 24, 2010; Published online: January 31, 2011.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Open Access
Repeated administration of addictive drugs causes cellular and molecular changes believed to be the mechanism of pro-addictive behaviors. Neuroadaptations also take place with repeated administration of amphetamine, methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs for Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD), and it is speculated that these changes may serve as markers to demonstrate the dependence liability of these therapies. In this review, we enumerate the neuroadaptive changes in molecules associated with neuronal signaling and plasticity, as well as neuronal morphology wrought by repeated administration of ADHD medications. We provide the current perspective on the dependence liability of these therapies, and also suggest of some factors that need to be considered in future investigations, so that what is drawn from animal studies would be better consolidated with those known clinically.
Keywords: Neuroadaptations, Amphetamine, Methylphenidate, Atomoxetine, Dependence liability

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