Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Antigen Delivery Systems: Past, Present, and Future
Hyun-Jeong Ko1 and Yeon-Jeong Kim2,3,4,*
1Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341,
2Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Pharmacy, Inje University, Gimhae 50834,
3Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, Inje University, Gimhae 50834,
4Smart Marine Therapeutic Center, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-55-320-3885, Fax: +82-55-320-3940
Received: January 9, 2023; Revised: March 7, 2023; Accepted: March 22, 2023; Published online: April 19, 2023.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased demand for safe and effective vaccines. Research to develop vaccines against diseases including Middle East respiratory syndrome, Ebolavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, and various cancers would also contribute to global well-being. For successful vaccine development, the advancement of technologies such as antigen (Ag) screening, Ag delivery systems and adjuvants, and manufacturing processes is essential. Ag delivery systems are required not only to deliver a sufficient amount of Ag for vaccination, but also to enhance immune response. In addition, Ag types and their delivery systems determine the manufacturing processes of the vaccine product. Here, we analyze the characteristics of various Ag delivery systems: plasmids, viral vectors, bacterial vectors, nanoparticles, self-assembled particles, natural and artificial cells, and extracellular vesicles. This review provides insight into the current vaccine landscape and highlights promising avenues of research for the development and improvement of Ag delivery systems.
Keywords: Vaccine, Antigen delivery system, Vector, Nanoparticle, Self-assembled particles, Extracellular vesicle

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