Biomolecules & Therapeutics
MS-5, a Naphthalene Derivative, Induces Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer BxPC-3 Cells by Modulating Reactive Oxygen Species
Suman Giri1,†, Gyu Hwan Park2,†, Joon-Seok Choi1, Eunsook Ma1, Kyung-Soo Chun3,* and Sang Hoon Joo1,*
1Department of Pharmacy, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430,
2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566,
3College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Republic of Korea
*E-mail: (Joo SH), (Chun KS)
Tel: +82-53-850-3614 (Joo SH), +82-53-580-6647 (Chun KS)
Fax: +82-53-359-6729 (Joo SH), +82-53-580-6645 (Chun KS)
The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: September 30, 2022; Revised: October 7, 2022; Accepted: October 17, 2022; Published online: November 16, 2022.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers with a poor prognosis. Standard chemotherapies have proven largely ineffective because of their toxicity and the development of resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of MS-5, a naphthalene derivative, on BxPC-3, a human pancreatic cancer cell line. We observed that MS-5 was cytotoxic to BxPC-3 cells, as well as inhibited the growth of cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of annexin V-positive cells increased after MS-5 treatment. We also observed cleavage of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and downregulation of Bcl-xL protein. Flow cytometry analysis of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide suggested that MS-5 induced the generation of mitochondrial superoxide while lowering the overall intracellular ROS levels. Thus, MS-5 may be potential candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment.
Keywords: Reactive oxygen species, Pancreatic cancer, Apoptosis

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