Biomolecules & Therapeutics  https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2022.061
Anti-Tumor Effect of IDF-11774, an Inhibitor of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, on Melanoma
Nan-Hyung Kim and Ai-Young Lee*
Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang 10326, Republic of Korea
*E-mail: lay5604@naver.com
Tel: +82-31-961-7250, Fax: +82-31-961-7695
Received: May 6, 2022; Revised: May 23, 2022; Accepted: May 24, 2022; Published online: June 17, 2022.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers. Hypoxia contributes to the aggressiveness of melanoma by promoting cancer growth and metastasis. Upregulation of cyclin D1 can promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in melanoma, whereas stimulation of cytotoxic T cell activity can inhibit it. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in melanoma metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a main transcriptional mediator that regulates many genes related to hypoxia. CoCl2 is one of the most commonly used hypoxia-mimetic chemicals in cell culture. In this study, inhibitory effects of IDF-11774, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, on melanoma growth and metastasis were examined using cultured B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and nude mice transplanted with B16F10 melanoma cells in the presence or absence of CoCl2-induced hypoxia. IDF-11774 reduced HIF-1α upregulation and cell survival, but increased cytotoxicity of cultured melanoma cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxia. IDF-11774 also reduced tumor size and local invasion of B16F10 melanoma in nude mice along with HIF-1α downregulation. Expression levels of cyclin D1 in melanoma were increased by CoCl2 but decreased by IDF-11774. Apoptosis of melanoma cells and infiltration of cytotoxic T cells were increased in melanoma after treatment with IDF-11774. EMT was stimulated by CoCl2, but restored by IDF- 11774. Overall, IDF-11774 inhibited the growth and metastasis of B16F10 melanoma via HIF-1α downregulation. The growth of B16F10 melanoma was inhibited by cyclin D1 downregulation and cytotoxic T cell stimulation. Metastasis of B16F10 melanoma was inhibited by EMT suppression.
Keywords: HIF-1α inhibitor, Inhibition of melanoma growth and metastasis, IDF11774


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