Biomolecules & Therapeutics  https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2022.007
Metabolic Bone Diseases and New Drug Developments
Vijayakumar Natesan1 and Sung-Jin Kim2,*
1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
*E-mail: kimsj@khu.ac.kr
Tel: +82-2-961-0868
Received: January 16, 2022; Revised: March 3, 2022; Accepted: March 5, 2022; Published online: March 28, 2022.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Metabolic bone diseases are serious health issues worldwide, since several million individuals over the age of 50 are at risk of bone damage and should be worried about their bone health. One in every two women and one in every four men will break a bone during their lifetime due to a metabolic bone disease. Early detection, raising bone health awareness, and maintaining a balanced healthy diet may reduce the risk of skeletal fractures caused by metabolic bone diseases. This review compiles information on the most common metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and fluorosis disease) seen in the global population, including their symptoms, mechanisms, and causes, as well as discussing their prevention and the development of new drugs for treatment. A large amount of research literature suggests that balanced nutrition and balanced periodic supplementation of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D can improve re-absorption and the regrowth of bones, and inhibit the formation of skeletal fractures, except in the case of hereditary bone diseases. Meanwhile, new and improved drug formulations, such as raloxifene, teriparatide, sclerostin, denosumab, and abaloparatide, have been successfully developed and administered as treatments for metabolic bone diseases, while others (romososumab and odanacatib) are in various stages of clinical trials.
Keywords: Metabolic bone diseases, Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia, New drugs, Odanacatib


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