Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Diabetic Nephropathy – a Review of Risk Factors, Progression, Mechanism, and Dietary Management
Vijayakumar Natesan1 and Sung-Jin Kim2,*
1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamilnadu, India
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-2-961-0868
Received: November 11, 2020; Revised: January 18, 2021; Accepted: March 26, 2021; Published online: April 23, 2021.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to many health problems like diabetic nephropathy (DN). One of the key factors for chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is T2DM. Extensive work is being done to delineate the pathogenesis of DN and to extend possible remedies. This review is intended to understand the nature of DN risk factors, progression, effects of glycemic levels, and stages of DN. We also explored the novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for DN such as gene therapy and stem cell treatments.
Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, Kidney disease, Hyperglycemia, Novel drugs

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