Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Differences in Neurotransmitters Level as Biomarker on Sleep Effects in Dementia Patients with Insomnia after Essential Oils Treatment
Kyung-Bok Lee, Sana Latif and Young-Sook Kang*
Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 04310, Republic of Korea
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Received: January 17, 2023; Revised: February 8, 2023; Accepted: February 12, 2023; Published online: March 13, 2023.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This study aimed to examine the effects of several essential oils on insomnia in dementia patients following transdermal treatment (aromatherapy). The mean change rates (%) of sleep biomarkers were compared between the single essential and jojoba (vehicle) oil massage groups in this study. The lavender (L) essential oil massage group demonstrated a significant decrease in the mean change rate (%) of 24-h urinary free cortisol, whereas the valerian (V) essential oil massage group demonstrated a significant increase in the mean change rate (%) of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine. In addition, a significant increase in the mean change rate (%) of 24-h urinary norepinephrine was observed in the chamomile (C) essential oil massage group only. Based on these results, valerian, lavender, and chamomile oils were mixed in different ratios to produce blending oils A (L:C:V=2:2:1), B (L:C:V=3:1:1) and C (L:C:V=1:3:1). The highest level of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine was observed after administering blending oil A. These results suggest that blending oil A might possess therapeutic effects against insomnia. Overall, it is hypothesized that the optimally blended essential oil will produce synergic effects when combined with hypnotic drugs.
Keywords: Biomarkers, 5-Hydroxytryptamine, Free cortisol, Urine norepinephrine, Dementia patients, Insomnia

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