The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2011; 19(2): 211-217  
A Fermented Ginseng Extract, BST204, Inhibits Proliferation and Motility of Human Colon Cancer Cells
Jong Woo Park1,a, Jae Cheol Lee1,a, Sora Ann1, Dong-Wan Seo2, Wahn Soo Choi3, Young Hyo Yoo4, Sun Kyu Park4, Jung Young Choi4, Sung Hee Um5, Seong Hoon Ahn6 and Jeung-Whan Han1,*
1School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, 2Department of Molecular Bioscience, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, 3College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, 4Green Cross Herb & Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Sungnam, 462-120, 5School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, 6Division of Molecular & Life Science, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, Republic of Korea
Jeung-Whan Han
Received: November 25, 2010; Revised: January 13, 2011; Accepted: January 14, 2011; Published online: April 30, 2011.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

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Panax ginseng CA Meyer, a herb from the Araliaceae, has traditionally been used as a medicinal plant in Asian countries. Ginseng extract fermented by ginsenoside-β-glucosidase treatment is enriched in ginsenosides such as Rh2 and Rg3. Here we show that a fermented ginseng extract, BST204, has anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with BST204 induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase without progression to apoptosis. This cell cycle arrest was accompanied by up-regulation of tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and p21WAF1/Cip1, down-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase/cyclins, Cdk2, cyclin E, and cyclin D1 involved in G1 or G1/S transition, and decrease in the phosphorylated form of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, BST204 suppressed the migration of HT-29 cells induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which correlated with the inhibition of metalloproteinase-9 activity and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. The effects of BST204 on the proliferation and the invasiveness of HT-29 cells were similar to those of Rh2. Taken together, the results suggest that fermentation of ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase enhanced the anti-proliferative and the anti-invasive activity against human colon cancer cells and these anti-tumor effects of BST204 might be mediated in part by enriched Rh2.
Keywords: BST204, Ginsenoside, Cell cycle, Cell migration, Cell proliferation, Colon cancer

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