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Fig. 6. Diagram of shikonin-induced ER stress signaling resulting in apoptosis. Shikonin induces the expression of ER stress-related proteins, such as GRP78 and CHOP, and releases Ca2+, thereby causing 5-FU-resistant SNU-C5 colorectal cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. The calcium chelator, EGTA, and the ER stress inhibitor, TUDCA, protected cells against ER stressed-apoptotic cell death.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2022;30:265~273 https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.118
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