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Fig. 3. Shikonin increases the expression of ER stress-related proteins and splicing of XBP-1 mRNA. (A) Cell lysates were subjected to electrophoresis, and GRP78, phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, phospho-IRE1, spliced XBP-1, cleaved caspase-12, and CHOP were detected using Western blotting. Actin was used as a loading control. (B) The level of spliced XBP-1 mRNA was measured using RT-PCR. GAPDH was used as a loading control. The expression of (C) GRP78 and (D) CHOP proteins were evaluated via immunocytochemistry. The ER-tracker Blue-White DPX probe was used to determine the number and morphology of ER organelles.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2022;30:265~273 https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.118
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