Biomolecules & Therapeutics : eISSN 2005-4483 / pISSN 1976-9148

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Fig. 3. Melatonin decreases the levels of HK2-related toxic metabolites and improves the metabolic activity of chronic kidney disease mouse model-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CKD-mMSCs). (A) Measurement of methylglyoxal (MG) in mMSCs derived from normal healthy mice (Nor-mMSCs) or CKD mice (CKD-mMSCs) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CKD-mMSCs were either treated with melatonin alone or pre-treated with luzindole before melatonin treatment. Values represent the mean ± SEM (n=5). *p<0.05 or **p<0.01 vs. Nor-mMSCs; ##p<0.01 vs. CKD-mMSCs; $$p<0.01 vs. melatonin-treated CKD-mMSCs. (B) Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) vs. extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) equated to the glycolytic rate of Nor-mMSCs, CKD-mMSCs, and CKD-mMSCs with melatonin treatment (Mel), or melatonin-treated CKD-mMSCs pre-treated with luzindole (Luz). Assessment of the baseline metabolic profile of each mMSC group was followed by a stress test to measure the metabolic shift toward the energetic state. (C) Seahorse assay for determining the ECAR of Nor-mMSCs and CKD-mMSCs under different experimental conditions. (D) Mitochondrial OCR of each group over time (min). (E) Histogram representing the bioenergetics parameters are based on the OCR data by administering oligomycin (20 min, 1 μM), FCCP (40 min, 0.75 μM), and antimycin A (60 min, 1 μM). Values represent the mean ± SEM (n=5). *p<0.05 or **p<0.01 vs. Nor-mMSCs; #p<0.05 or ##p<0.01 vs. CKD-mMSCs; $p<0.05 or $$p<0.01 vs. melatonin-treated CKD-mMSCs.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2022;30:28~37
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