Biomolecules & Therapeutics : eISSN 2005-4483 / pISSN 1976-9148

Table. 1.

Table 1 List of tubular biomarkers

Bio marker Source Size Key point
MMP-9 Macrophages 707 kDa MMP-9 functions as proapoptotic element in rapid depletion of retinal capillary cells seen in diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis (Kowluru, 2010).
MMP-2 Cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts. 72 kDa MMPs are a large proteinase family that redesigns constituents of the extracellular matrix. Its induction is known as negative regulation of cell viability under pathological environments (Mohammad and Siddiquei, 2012).
TNF-α Macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes 17.3 kDa Renal cells synthesize tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and is a cytokine with primarily proinflammatory functions (Navarro et al., 2005).
IL-6 Smooth muscle cells 21-26 kDa Interleukin (IL)-6 is a cytokine with proinflammatory factor. Elevated vitreous IL-6 expression in patients with DR is associated with macular oedema. Although, the essential purpose of IL-6 remains uncertain in DR pathogenesis (Rojas et al., 2011).
RBP4 Liver 21 kDa RBP4 is related to insulin resistance factors and diabetic related disorders (Li et al., 2018).
IGF-1 Cartilaginous cells 7649 kDa IGF-1 is considered to activate a sequence of molecular mechanisms which causes retinal angiogenesis. Accelerated vitreous IGF-1 levels related to incidence of diabetic retinal neovascularization related to severe ischemia (De Sanctis et al., 2015).
VEGF Macrophages, platelets 46 kDa VEGF development is triggered because of ischemia or hypoxia. Tissue hypoxia contributes to the formation of a protein called hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) that binds to DNA (Krock et al., 2011).
KIM-1 Blood retinal 124 kDa Baseline KIM-1 had a predicted rate of loss in eGFR and eSRD in proteinuric patients (>500 mg day-1) over 5-15 years of continuity (Sabbisetti et al., 2014).
Urine 63 kDa KIM-1 is correlated with GFR reduction but albuminuria-dependent (Nielsen et al., 2011).
Urine 978 kDa Urine KIM-1/Cr is linked to initial GFR drop with a 4-year follow-up but does not have more prognostic details to albumin/Cr ratio (Conway et al., 2012).
NGAL Serum/urine 50 kDa NGAL shows a raised level prior to microalbuminuria. Urine NGAL is interlinked with albuminuria and serum NGAL is known to be related with HbA1c (Lacquaniti et al., 2013).
Serum/urine 63 kDa NGAL is consistent with GFR decline, but albuminuria-dependent (Nielsen et al., 2011).
Urine 140 kDa Urine NGAL is not related to eGFR (Chou et al., 2013).
L-FABP Urine 1549 kDa The range of differing L-FABP results were observed between normo-albuminuria and macro-albuminuria. The urine L-FABP/Cr ratio predicted DN progression at baseline, however the addition of L-FABP to albumin excretion did not provide the predictive models (Panduru et al., 2013).
Urine 277 kDa Urine L-FABP could predict albuminuria progression or death (Nielsen et al., 2014).
Urine/serum 63 kDa L-FABP is not consistent with GFR decrease (Nielsen et al., 2011).
Cystatin C Urine 237 kDa The urine cystatin C/Cr ratio is linked with eGFR reduction, with elevated tertile levels correlated with advancement to stage 3 or higher CKD after continuation of 20 months (Kim et al., 2013).

This shows a list of renal tubular biomarkers that could help to identify diabetic nephropathy.

Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2021;29:365~372
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