Biomolecules & Therapeutics : eISSN 2005-4483 / pISSN 1976-9148

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Fig. 1. Overview of Autophagy Process. The depletion of ATP activates AMPK under fasting conditions. The AMPK activates autophagy by suppressing the activity of mTORC1 and by phosphorylating the ULK1. The ULK1 complex initiates the formation of autophagosome by stimulating Beclin 1/ATG14/VPS34 complex. The Atg5–Atg12-Atg16L1 complex, which regulates the autophagosomes, converts LC3-I into LC3-II. Abnormal organelles or proteins after their ubiquitination (Ub) is recognized by p62. LC3-II interacts with the ubiquitinated p62-cargo complex and is engulfed into the autophagosomes. The autophagosomes fuse with lysosome and leads to the formation of autolysosome. The target molecules or organelles are finally degraded by lysosomal proteases and are utilized as metabolite substrates.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2020;28:503~511 https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.155
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