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Fig. 4. METH-induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation cause neuronal cell apoptosis. Neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation pathways are involved in METH-induced apoptosis. Increasing of DA and Glu by METH produce ROS and Ca2+ that act as secondary messengers for mitochondria- and ER-mediated apoptosis.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2020;28:381~388 https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2020.044
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