The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2013; 21(5): 381-390  
Ginsenoside Rg3 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments by Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Rats
Bombi Lee1,*, Bongjun Sur2, Jinhee Park1, Sung-Hun Kim1, Sunoh Kwon1, Mijung Yeom1, Insop Shim1,2, Hyejung Lee1,2 and Dae-Hyun Hahm1,2,*
1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, 2The Graduate School of Basic Science of Oriental Medicine, College of Ori-ental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea
Bombi Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
Received: June 17, 2013; Revised: September 12, 2013; Accepted: September 23, 2013; Published online: September 30, 2013.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) could improve learning and memory impairmentsand infl ammatory reactions induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the brains of rats. The effects of GRg3 on proinflammatory mediators in the hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms of these effects were also investigated. Injectionof LPS into the lateral ventricle caused chronic infl ammation and produced defi cits in learning in a memory-impairment animalmodel. Daily administration of GRg3 (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 consecutive days markedly improved the LPS-inducedlearning and memory disabilities demonstrated on the step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. GRg3 administrationsignifi cantly decreased expression of pro-infl ammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, andcyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus, as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry.Together, these fi ndings suggest that GRg3 signifi cantly attenuated LPS-induced cognitive impairment by inhibitingthe expression of pro-infl ammatory mediators in the rat brain. These results suggest that GRg3 may be effective for preventing orslowing the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, by improving cognitive and memory functionsdue to its anti-infl ammatory activity in the brain.
Keywords: Lipopolysaccharide, Memory, Infl ammation, Ginsenoside Rg3, Morris water maze, Cyclooxygenase-2

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