Biomol Ther  
Roles of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration and Immunomodulation
Ana Patricia Ayala-Cuellar1, Ji-Houn Kang2, Eui-Bae Jeung3 and Kyung-Chul Choi1,4,*
1Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, 2Laboratory of Internal Medicine, 3Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, 4Institute of Life Science and Bio-Engineering, TheraCell Bio & Science, Cheongju 28644, Republic of Korea
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Received: December 27, 2017; Revised: March 27, 2018; Accepted: April 16, 2018; Published online: June 14, 2018.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Mesenchymal stem cells are classified as multipotent stem cells, due to their capability to transdifferentiate into various lineages that develop from mesoderm. Their popular appeal as cell-based therapy was initially based on the idea of their ability to restore tissue because of their differentiation potential in vitro; however, the lack of evidence of their differentiation to target cells in vivo led researchers to focus on their secreted trophic factors and their role as potential powerhouses on regulation of factors under different immunological environments and recover homeostasis. To date there are more than 800 clinical trials on humans related to MSCs as therapy, not to mention that in animals is actively being applied as therapeutic resource, though it has not been officially approved as one. But just as how results from clinical trials are important, so is to reveal the biological mechanisms involved on how these cells exert their healing properties to further enhance the application of MSCs on potential patients. In this review, we describe characteristics of MSCs, evaluate their benefits as tissue regenerative therapy and combination therapy, as well as their immunological properties, activation of MSCs that dictate their secreted factors, interactions with other immune cells, such as T cells and possible mechanisms and pathways involved in these interactions.
Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells, Immunomodulation, Regenerative medicine, Toll-like receptor, Prostaglandin E2, T regulators

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