Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2018; 26(2): 115-120  https://doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2016.248
Neuroprotective Effect of Duloxetine on Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Damage
Jin-A Park, and Choong-Hyun Lee*
Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Republic of Korea
E-mail: anaphy@dankook.ac.kr, Tel: +82-41-550-1441, Fax: +82-41-559-7899
Received: November 1, 2016; Revised: December 19, 2016; Accepted: January 9, 2017; Published online: April 6, 2017.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which is associated with onset of vascular dementia, causes cognitive impairment and neuropathological alterations in the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of duloxetine (DXT), a potent and balanced serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on CCH-induced neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 region using a rat model of permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion. We found that treatment with 20 mg/kg DXT could attenuate the neuronal damage, the reduction of phosphorylations of mTOR and p70S6K as well as the elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the hippocampal CA1 region at 28 days following CCH. These results indicate that DXT displays the neuroprotective effect against CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal death, and that neuroprotective effect of DXT may be closely related with the attenuations of CCH-induced decrease of mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway as well as CCH-induced neuroinflammatory process.

Keywords: Duloxetine, Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, Hippocamus, Neuroprotection, mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway, Pro-inflammatory cytokines
INTRODUCTION

Vascular dementia, mainly caused by alteration of blood supply to the brain, is the second most common type of dementia (Plassman et al., 2007). To investigate vascular dementia, animal models of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion, have been widely used, because CCH causes a marked chronic reduction in cerebral blood flow (Farkas et al., 2004, 2007; Cechetti et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2014). It has been well known that CCH can lead to cognitive impairment as well as neuropathological alterations in some brain regions including hippocampus and cerebral white matter (Farkas et al., 2004, 2007; Yang et al., 2014; Ueno et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2016a). Especially, among some brain regions, the hippocampal CA1 region is thought to be one of the most vulnerable region following CCH (Farkas et al., 2004; Cechetti et al., 2012; Lee et al., 2016a; Park and Lee, 2016). Some of underlying mechanisms, which related to the CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal damage, have been suggested to include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation (Cechetti et al., 2012; He et al., 2012; Qu et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2016a). In addition, recent studies reported that a significant alterations of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, such as decrease of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), occurred in the hippocampus following CCH (Jia et al., 2015; Park and Lee, 2016). However, the precise mechanisms about CCH-induced neuronal damage have not been fully elucidated yet.

Duloxetine (DXT), a potent and balanced serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), has been used in the treatment of major depressive disorders, painful diabetic neuropathy and urinary incontinence (Nemeroff et al., 2002; Goldstein et al., 2005; Guay, 2005). Recently, we showed that DXT had a neuroprotective effect against kainic acid-induced excitotoxic neuronal death in the mouse hippocampus, and that the neuroprotective effect of DXT was related with its anti-inflammatory action (Choi et al., 2015). In addition, we also reported that a neuroprotective effect of DXT was closely related with decreases of glial activation and oxidative stress in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia (Lee et al., 2016b).

Although a recent study reported that venlafaxine, another SNRI, could attenuate cognition impairment, brain oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as cerebral damage in a rat model of vascular dementia induced by renovascular hypertension (Singh and Sharma, 2016), to the best of our knowledge, there is no study on the neuroprotective effect of SNRI against CCH-induced neuronal damage as yet. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether DXT had a neuroprotective effect on CCH-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampal CA1 region.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental animals

Male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old), obtained from RaonBio (Yongin, Korea), were used for this experiment. The animals were housed in a conventional state under adequate temperature (23 ± 3ºC) and relative humidity (55 ± 5%) control with a 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, and provided with free access to food and water. All experimental procedures for animal handling and use were approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Dankook University (Cheonan, Korea). All of the experiments were conducted to minimize the number of animals used and the suffering caused by the procedures used in the present study.

Experimental animal groups and DXT treatment

To elucidate the effect of DXT (Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, USA) against CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal damage, animals were divided into 4 groups (n=10 in each group (n=5 for immunohistochemistry, n=5 for western blot analysis and ELISA assay in each group); 1) vehicle (sterile normal saline; 0.9% w/v NaCl)-treated sham-operated group (Sham-group), 2) vehicle-treated CCH-operated group (CCH-group), 3) 20 mg/kg DXT-treated sham-operated group (DXT-Sham-group), 4) 20 mg/kg DXT-treated CCH-operated groups (DXT-CCH-group). Vehicle and DXT were administered intraperitoneally once a day from the day of surgery (day 1) to the day of scarification (day 28). The dosage of DXT was selected based on previous studies (Choi et al., 2015).

Surgery for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

The surgical procedure for CCH was performed by 2 vessel occlusion (2VO) according to the method of our previous studies (Lee et al., 2016a; Park and Lee, 2016). In brief, the animals were anesthetized with a mixture of 2.5% isoflurane (Baxtor, Deerfield, IL, USA) in 33% oxygen and 67% nitrous oxide. Through a midline cervical incision, both common carotid arteries were exposed and ligated with 5/0 silk suture. The body (rectal) temperature was monitored with a rectal temperature probe (TR-100; Fine Science Tools, Foster City, CA, USA) and maintained using a thermometric blanket before, during and after the surgery until the animals completely recovered from anesthesia. The rats of the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups were subjected to the same surgical procedures except that the common carotid arteries were not occluded. In case of death of experimental animals after the surgery, additional animals were added.

NeuN immunohistochemistry for neuronal damage

At day 28 after the surgery, the animals were anesthetized with zoletil 50 (40 mg/kg, Virbac, Carros, France) and perfused transcardially with 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) followed by 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M PBS. The brains were removed and postfixed in the same fixative for 6 h. The brain tissues were cryoprotected by infiltration with 30% sucrose overnight. Thereafter, frozen tissues were serially sectioned on a cryostat (Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) into 30 μm coronal sections, and they were then collected into six-well plates containing PBS.

To examine CCH-induced neuronal damage and neuroprotective effect of DXT in the hippocampal CA1 region, NeuN immunohistochemistry was performed according to the method of previous studies (Choi et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2016a, 2016b). In brief, the brain sections were incubated with diluted mouse anti-NeuN (1:1000, Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA) overnight at 4°C and subsequently exposed to biotinylated goat anti-mouse IgG and streptavidin peroxidase complex (1:200, Vector, Burlingame, CA, USA). And they were visualized by staining with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2). And then, digital images of the hippocampal CA1 region were captured with an Axio Imager 2 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany) equipped with a digital camera (Axiocam, Carl Zeiss) connected to a PC monitor. According to the method of our previous study (Lee et al., 2016a), NeuN-immunoreactive neurons were counted in a 250×250 μm square applied approximately at the center of the CA1 region. Six coronal sections with 150-μm interval per animal were selected, and cell counts were obtained by averaging the counts from each animal.

Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis for p-mTOR and p-S6K

According to the above-mentioned method, immunohistochemistry for p-mTOR and phosphorylated-p70S6 kinase (p-S6K) was performed with rabbit anti-p-mTOR (ser2448) (1:100, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) or rabbit anti-p-S6K (Thr389) (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA) as a primary antibody. In order to establish the specificity of the immunostaining, a negative control test was carried out without a primary antibody. The negative control resulted in the absence of immunoreactivity in any structures. Six sections per animal were selected with 150-μm interval to quantitatively analyze p-mTOR and p-S6K immunoreactivity, and digital images of the hippocampal CA1 region were captured with an Axio Imager 2 microscope (Carl Zeiss) equipped with a digital camera (Axiocam, Carl Zeiss) connected to a PC monitor.

To examine changes in p-mTOR and p-S6K protein levels in the hippocampal CA1 region following CCH, experimental animals were used for western blot analysis at 28 days after surgery. After sacrificing animals and removing the brains, brains were serially and transversely cut into a thickness of 400-μm on a vibratome (Leica), and the hippocampal CA1 regions were then dissected with a surgical blade. The tissues were homogenized and centrifuged, and then the supernatants were used to western blot analysis. Rabbit anti-mTOR (1:200, Santa Cruz Biotechnology), rabbit anti-p-S6K (1:500, Abcam) or mouse anti-β-actin (1:5,000, Sigma-Aldrich) was used as a primary antibody. Western blot analysis was performed with three repetitions. After scanning the result of the western blot analysis, densitometric analysis of western blot bands was performed using Image J 1.46 software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA), to measure relative optical density (ROD). Ratios of the ROD of each groups were represented as %, with Sham-group designated as 100%.

Measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines

To examine the effect of DXT on pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus after CCH, ELISA assay for TNF-α and IL-1β was performed according to the previous study (Qu et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2016a). Briefly, the animals were sacrificed at day 28 after the surgery, and the hippocampus was removed and homogenized. After centrifugation of the homogenates at 14,000 g for 20 min at 4°C, the supernatant was collected. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were examined using commercial ELISA kit (Invitrogen, Camarillo, CA, USA). The concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β in 100 μL samples was determined according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were expressed as pg/mg protein.

Statistical analysis

The data shown here represent the means ± SEM. The differences among the means were statistically analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance followed by a post Dunnett test to elucidate differences among the groups. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.

RESULTS

Neuroprotective effect of DXT on CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal damage

The neuroprotective effect of DXT on CCH-induced neuronal damage was examined in the hippocampal CA1 region at 28 days after surgery using NeuN immunohistochemistry (Fig. 1). In the Sham-group, NeuN-immunoreactive (+) cells were abundantly observed in the hippocampal CA1 region (Fig. 1A, 1E). However, a significant reduction in the number of NeuN+ neurons was detected in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region in the CCH-group (Fig. 1B, 1E). In the DXT-Sham-group, NeuN+ neurons was well observed in the SP of the the hippocampal CA1 region (Fig. 1C, 1E). In addition, there was no significant difference in the number of NeuN+ neurons in the DXT-CCH-group, compared with that in the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups (Fig. 1D, 1E).

Changes of p-mTOR and p-S6K protein expression

Both p-mTOR and p-S6K immunoreactivity were easily observed in the SP of the hippocampal CA1 region in the Sham-group (Fig. 2A, 2B). However, in the CCH-group, p-mTOR and p-S6K immunoreactivity in the SP were markedly decreased in the SP; especially, p-S6K immunoreactivity was hardly detected in the SP of the CCH group (Fig. 2C, 2D). There was no marked differences in the distribution and immunoreactivity of p-mTOR and p-S6K between Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups (Fig. 2E, 2F). In addition, both p-mTOR and p-S6K immunoreactivity in the DXT-CCH-group were similar to those in the DXT-Sham-group (Fig. 2G, 2H).

From western blot analysis, we observed that the patterns of changes in p-mTOR and p-S6K protein levels in the hippocampal CA1 region following CCH were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical data. Both p-mTOR and p-S6K protein levels were significantly decreased in the CCH-group, compared with those in the Sham-group. However, there were no significant differences of p-mTOR and p-S6K protein levels in the DXT-CCH-group, compared with those in the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups (Fig. 3).

Levels of TNF-α and IL-1β

TNF-α and IL-1β levels were 21.37 ± 1.31 pg/mg protein and 14.25 ± 1.16 pg/mg protein, respectively, in the hippocampal CA1 region of the Sham-group. In the CCH-group, both TNF-α (33.41 ± 2.96 pg/mg protein) and IL-1β (24.34 ± 2.47 pg/mg protein) levels were significantly increased, compared with those in the Sham-group. However, TNF-α (23.61 ± 2.72 pg/mg protein) and IL-1β (16.48 ± 2.14 pg/mg protein) levels in the DXT-CCH-group were similar with those in the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups (Fig. 4).

DISCUSSION

It has been widely accepted that the marked neuronal damage occurs in the hippocampal CA1 region following CCH, and that CCH-induced cognitive impairment is associated with a significant reduction of hippocampal CA1 cells (Farkas et al., 2007; Cechetti et al., 2012; He et al., 2012; Qu et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2016a; Park and Lee, 2016). In this study, we observed that the number of NeuN-immunoreactive neurons was significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region at 28 days after CCH. This result was consistent with that of the previous studies, which showed the marked reduction of hippocampal pyramidal neurons at 28 days after CCH (Yang et al., 2014; Park and Lee, 2016). In addition, in the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of DXT on CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal damage, and we found that DXT could attenuate the CCH-induced neuronal damage of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. This is the first report on the neuroprotective effect of DXT, one of SNRI, against CCH-induced neuronal damage, and this result is in line with our previous study, which reported that pretreated DXT could protect against ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia (Lee et al., 2016b).

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of Akt, and phosphorylated mTOR by Akt has been thought to be essential for protein synthesis, cell growth, cell survival and diverse cellular functions (Gingras et al., 2001; Laplante and Sabatini, 2012). In addition, mTOR phosphorylates S6K, which is also known to play important roles in protein synthesis, cell growth and cell cycle progression (Pullen and Thomas, 1997; Dufner and Thomas, 1999). It has been well known that mTOR/S6K signaling pathway is affected following cerebral ischemic insult. Some previous studies showed that phosphorylations of mTOR and p70S6K were significantly decreased in transient focal cerebral ischemia, which may be related with progression of cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal death (Janelidze et al., 2001; Koh, 2008; Koh et al., 2008; Koh, 2013). It has been also suggested that up-regulation or maintenance of phosphorylations of mTOR and S6K by treatment with some pharmacological agents may could reduce brain injury after cerebral ischemic insult (Koh, 2008; Koh et al., 2008; Shi et al., 2011; Koh, 2013). In the present study, we investigate whether DXT could affect the changes of p-mTOR and p-S6K protein expression in the hippocampal CA1 region following CCH. We found that both immunoreactivities and protein levels of p-mTOR and p-S6K were significantly decreased in the CCH-group at 28 days following CCH. This result is in line with our previous finding, which showed that both mTOR and p-mTOR protein expressions were significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region at 28 days following CCH (Park and Lee, 2016). In addition, it was also reported that p-mTOR were down-regulated in the rat hippocampus at 20 days following CCH (Jia et al., 2015). On the other hand, in this study, we observed that there were no significant changes of both p-mTOR and p-p70S6K protein expressions in the DXT-CCH-group, compared with those in the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups. Therefore, based on the results and suggestions of previous studies (Koh, 2008; Koh et al., 2008; Shi et al., 2011; Koh, 2013), it can be thought that the neuroprotective effect of DXT against CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal damage may be closely associated with maintanence of mTOR/S6K signaling pathway.

It has well been known that CCH causes a significant neuroinflammatory response in the rat brain, and that CCH-induced neuroinflammatory response promotes the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, which are thought to be closely related with neuronal damage (Farkas et al., 2007; Qu et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2016a). In our previous and present studies, we found that both TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly increased in the CCH-group (Lee et al., 2016a). Whereas, in this study, we observed that both TNF-α and IL-1β levels were measured similarly in the DXT-CCH-group, compared with those in the Sham- and DXT-Sham-group. Previously, we reported that the anti-inflammatory activity of DXT prevents kainic acid-induced excitatory neuronal damage in the mouse hippocampal CA3 region (Choi et al., 2015). Therefore, it can be postulated that the anti-inflammatory activity of DXT might be also associated with the neuroprotective effec tof DXT against CCH-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampal CA1 region.

In summary, our present study indicates that DXT could attenuate the CCH-induced hippocampal neuronal damage, and that the neuroprotective effect of DXT might be due to the maintenance of CCH-induced decrease in mTOR/S6K signaling pathway as well as the suppression of CCH-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines levels.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2058440).

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest.

Figures
Fig. 1. NeuN immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal CA1 region of the Sham-(A), CCH-(B), DXT-Sham-(C) and DXT-CCH-(D) groups. NeuN+ neurons are decreased in the stratum pyramidale (SP, asterisk) of the CCH-group. However, in the DXT-CCH-group, NeuN+ neurons are similar to those in the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups. SO; stratum oriens, SR; stratum radiatum. Scale bar=100 μm. (E) Analysis in the number of NeuN+ neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of the Sham-, CCH-, DXT-Sham- and DXT-CCH-groups (*p<0.05, significantly different from the Sham-group). Bars indicate the means ± SEM.
Fig. 2. p-mTOR (left column) and p-S6K (right column) immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal CA1 region of the Sham- (A, B), CCH- (C, D), DXT-Sham- (E, F) and DXT-CCH- (G, H) groups. Marked reduction of p-mTOR and p-S6K immunoreactivity are observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP, asterisk) of the CCH-group. However, p-mTOR and p-S6K immunoreactivity are maintained in the DXT-CCH-group compared with the Sham- and DXT-Sham-groups. SO; stratum oriens, SR; stratum radiatum. Scale bar=100 μm.
Fig. 3. Western blot analysis of p-mTOR (∼289 kDa) and p-S6K (∼75 kDa) in the hippocampal CA1 region derived from the Sham-, CCH-, DXT-Sham- and DXT-CCH-groups. Relative optical density (ROD) as % values of immunoblot band is also represented (*p<0.05, significantly different from the Sham-group). The bars indicate the means ± SEM.
Fig. 4. TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the hippocampal CA1 region of the Sham-, CCH-, DXT-Sham- and DXT-CCH-groups. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were expressed as pg/mg protein (*p<0.05, significantly different from the Sham-group). The bars indicate the means ± SEM.
References
  1. Cechetti, F, Pagnussat, AS, Worm, PV, Elsner, VR, Ben, J, da Costa, MS, Mestriner, R, Weis, SN, and Netto, CA (2012). Chronic brain hypoperfusion causes early glial activation and neuronal death, and subsequent long-term memory impairment. Brain Res Bull. 87, 109-116.
    CrossRef
  2. Choi, HS, Park, JH, Ahn, JH, Hong, S, Cho, JH, Won, MH, and Lee, CH (2015). The anti-inflammatory activity of duloxetine, a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, prevents kainic acidinduced hippocampal neuronal death in mice. J Neurol Sci. 358, 390-397.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Dufner, A, and Thomas, G (1999). Ribosomal S6 kinase signaling and the control of translation. Exp Cell Res. 253, 100-109.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Farkas, E, Donka, G, de Vos, RA, Mihaly, A, Bari, F, and Luiten, PG (2004). Experimental cerebral hypoperfusion induces white matter injury and microglial activation in the rat brain. Acta Neuropathol. 108, 57-64.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Farkas, E, Luiten, PG, and Bari, F (2007). Permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in the rat: a model for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-related neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Res Rev. 54, 162-180.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Gingras, AC, Raught, B, and Sonenberg, N (2001). Control of translation by the target of rapamycin proteins. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 27, 143-174.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Goldstein, DJ, Lu, Y, Detke, MJ, Lee, TC, and Iyengar, S (2005). Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain. 116, 109-118.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Guay, DR (2005). Duloxetine for management of stress urinary incontinence. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 3, 25-38.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. He, XL, Wang, YH, Bi, MG, and Du, GH (2012). Chrysin improves cognitive deficits and brain damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 680, 41-48.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Janelidze, S, Hu, BR, Siesjo, P, and Siesjo, BK (2001). Alterations of Akt1 (PKBα) and p70S6K in transient focal ischemia. Neurobiol Dis. 8, 147-154.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Jia, Y, Jin, W, Xiao, Y, Dong, Y, Wang, T, Fan, M, Xu, J, Meng, N, Li, L, and Lv, P (2015). Lipoxin A4 methyl ester alleviates vascular cognition impairment by regulating the expression of proteins related to autophagy and ER stress in the rat hippocampus. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 20, 475-487.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Koh, PO (2008). Melatonin prevents ischemic brain injury through activation of the mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathway. Neurosci Lett. 444, 74-78.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Koh, PO, Cho, JH, Won, CK, Lee, HJ, Sung, JH, and Kim, MO (2008). Estradiol attenuates the focal cerebral ischemic injury through mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathway. Neurosci Lett. 436, 62-66.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Koh, PO (2013). Ferulic acid attenuates focal cerebral ischemia-induced decreases in p70S6 kinase and S6 phosphorylation. Neurosci Lett. 555, 7-11.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Laplante, M, and Sabatini, DM (2012). mTOR signaling in growth control and disease. Cell. 149, 274-293.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Lee, CH, Park, JH, Ahn, JH, and Won, MH (2016a). Effects of melatonin on cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Exp Ther Med. 11, 2240-2246.
    CrossRef
  17. Lee, TK, Park, JH, Ahn, JH, Shin, MC, Cho, JH, Bae, EJ, Kim, YM, Won, MH, and Lee, CH (2016b). Pretreated duloxetine protects hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemia-reperfusion injury through decreases of glial activation and oxidative stress. J Neurol Sci. 370, 229-236.
    CrossRef
  18. Nemeroff, CB, Schatzberg, AF, Goldstein, DJ, Detke, MJ, Mallinckrodt, C, Lu, Y, and Tran, PV (2002). Duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 36, 106-132.
  19. Park, JA, and Lee, CH (2016). Time-course change of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated-mTOR expressions in the hippocampal CA1 region of rat with vascular dementia. J Vet Sci.
  20. Plassman, BL, Langa, KM, Fisher, GG, Heeringa, SG, Weir, DR, Ofstedal, MB, Burke, JR, Hurd, MD, Potter, GG, Rodgers, WL, Steffens, DC, Willis, RJ, and Wallace, RB (2007). Prevalence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiology. 29, 125-132.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Pullen, N, and Thomas, G (1997). The modular phosphorylation and activation of p70s6k. FEBS Lett. 410, 78-82.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Qu, J, Zhou, Q, Du, Y, Zhang, W, Bai, M, Zhang, Z, Xi, Y, Li, Z, and Miao, J (2014). Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Br J Pharmacol. 171, 3702-3715.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  23. Shi, GD, OuYang, YP, Shi, JG, Liu, Y, Yuan, W, and Jia, LS (2011). PTEN deletion prevents ischemic brain injury by activating the mTOR signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 404, 941-945.
    CrossRef
  24. Singh, P, and Sharma, B (2016). Selective serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition limits renovascular-hypertension induced cognitive impairment, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress injury. Curr Neurovasc Res. 13, 135-146.
    CrossRef
  25. Ueno, Y, Koike, M, Shimada, Y, Shimura, H, Hira, K, Tanaka, R, Uchiyama, Y, Hattori, N, and Urabe, T (2015). L-carnitine enhances axonal plasticity and improves white-matter lesions after chronic hypoperfusion in rat brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 35, 382-391.
    KoreaMed CrossRef
  26. Yang, H, Shi, O, Jin, Y, Henrich-Noack, P, Qiao, H, Cai, C, Tao, H, and Tian, X (2014). Functional protection of learning and memory abilities in rats with vascular dementia. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 32, 689-700.
    Pubmed


This Article


Cited By Articles

Funding Information

Services
Social Network Service

e-submission

Archives