Biomol Ther  
Modulation of Electroosmotic Flow through Skin: Effect of Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimers
Hye Ji Kim and Seaung Youl Oh*
College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 04310, Republic of Korea
E-mail: syoh@sm.ac.kr
Tel: +82-2-710-9563, Fax: +82-2-710-9871
Received: October 12, 2017; Revised: October 17, 2017; Accepted: October 19, 2017; Published online: January 9, 2018.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on electroosmotic flow (EOF) through skin. The effect of size and concentration of dendrimer was studied, using generation 1, 4 and 7 dendrimer (G1, G4 and G7, respectively). As a marker molecule for the direction and magnitude of EOF, a neutral molecule, acetoaminophen (AAP) was used. The visualization of dendrimer permeation into the current conducting pore (CCP) of skin was made using G4–fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate and confocal microscopy. Without dendrimer, anodal flux of AAP was much higher than cathodal or passive flux. When G1 dendrimer was added, anodal flux decreased, presumably due to the decrease in EOF by the association of G1 dendrimer with net negative charge in CCP. As the generation increased, larger decrease in anodal flux was observed, and the direction of EOF was reversed. Small amount of methanol used for the preparation of dendrimer solution also contributed to the decrease in anodal flux of AAP. Cross-sectional view perpendicular to the skin surface by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) study showed that G4 dendrimer-FITC conjugate (G4-FITC) can penetrate into the viable epidermis and dermis under anodal current. The permeation route seemed to be localized on hair follicle region. These results suggest that PAMAM dendrimers can permeate into CCP and change the magnitude and direction of EOF. Overall, we obtained a better understanding on the mechanistic insights into the electroosmosis phenomena and its role on flux during iontophoresis.
Keywords: PAMAM dendrimer, Electroosmotic flow, Acetaminophen, Methanol, FITC


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