Biomolecules & Therapeutics  
New Anticoagulants for the Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism
Joo Hee Kim1,2, Kyung-Min Lim2,* and Hye Sun Gwak2,*
1College of Pharmacy & Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 16499,
2College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea
E-mail: kmlim@ewha.ac.kr (Lim KM), hsgwak@ewha.ac.kr(Gwak HS)
Tel: +82-2-3277-3055 (Lim KM), +82-2-3277-4376 (Gwak HS)
Fax: +82-2-3277-3760 (Lim KM), +82-2-3277-2851 (Gwak HS)
Received: December 11, 2016; Revised: January 21, 2017; Accepted: January 26, 2017; Published online: April 6, 2017.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Anticoagulant drugs, like vitamin K antagonists and heparin, have been the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic disease for many years. Although effective if appropriately used, traditional anticoagulants have several limitations such as unpredictable pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic responses and various adverse effects including serious bleeding complications. New oral anticoagulants have recently emerged as an alternative because of their rapid onset/offset of action, predictable linear dose-response relationships and fewer drug interactions. However, they are still associated with problems such as bleeding, lack of reversal agents and standard laboratory monitoring. In an attempt to overcome these drawbacks, key steps of the hemostatic pathway are investigated as targets for anticoagulation. Here we reviewed the traditional and new anticoagulants with respect to their targets in the coagulation cascade, along with their therapeutic advantages and disadvantages. In addition, investigational anticoagulant drugs currently in the development stages were introduced.
Keywords: Anticoagulant, Vitamin K antagonist, Heparin, Venous thromboembolism


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