Biomol Ther (Seoul)  
Characterization of a Biflaviolin Synthase CYP158A3 from Streptomyces avermitilis and Its Role in the Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites
Young-Ran Lim1, Songhee Han1, Joo-Hwan Kim1, Hyoung-Goo Park1, Ga-Young Lee2, Thien-Kim Le2, Chul-Ho Yun2 and Donghak Kim1,*
1Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 05025,
2School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea
E-mail: donghak@konkuk.ac.kr Tel: +82-2-450-3366, Fax: +82-2-3436-5432
Received: August 16, 2016; Revised: September 22, 2016; Accepted: September 22, 2016; Published online: December 13, 2016.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Streptomyces avermitilis produces clinically useful drugs such as avermectins and oligomycins. Its genome contains approximately 33 cytochrome P450 genes and they seem to play important roles in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. The SAV_7130 gene from S. avermitilis encodes CYP158A3; the amino acid sequence of this enzyme has high similarity with that of CYP158A2, a biflaviolin synthase from S. coelicolor A3(2). Recombinant S. avermitilis CYP158A3 was heterologously expressed and purified. It exhibited the typical P450 Soret peak at 447 nm in the reduced CO-bound form. Type I binding spectral changes were observed when CYP158A3 was titrated with myristic acid; however, no oxidative product was formed. An analog of flaviolin, 2-hydroxynaphthoquinone (2-OH NQ) displayed similar type I binding upon titration with purified CYP158A3. It underwent an enzymatic reaction forming dimerized product. A homology model of CYP158A3 was superimposed with the structure of CYP158A2, and the majority of structural elements aligned. These results suggest that CYP158A3 might be an orthologue of biflaviolin synthase, catalyzing C-C coupling reactions during pigment biosynthesis in S. avermitilis.
Keywords: P450, Streptomyces avermitilis, CYP158A3, Flaviolin, 2-Hydroxynaphthoquinone


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