Biomol Ther (Seoul)  
Kahweol from Coffee Induces Apoptosis by Upregulating Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells
Gwang Hun Park, Hun Min Song and Jin Boo Jeong*
Department of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Republic of Korea
E-mail: jjb0403@anu.ac.kr
Tel: +82-54-820-7757, Fax: +82-54-820-6252
Received: May 25, 2016; Revised: July 27, 2016; Accepted: August 23, 2016; Published online: November 25, 2016.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Kahweol as a coffee-specific diterpene has been reported to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Although some molecular targets for kahweol-mediated apoptosis have been elucidated, the further mechanism for apoptotic effect of kahweol is not known. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to be associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which kahweol stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Kahweol increased apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. It also increased ATF3 expression through the transcriptional activity. The responsible cis-element for ATF3 transcriptional activation by kahweol was CREB located between -147 to -85 of ATF3 promoter. ATF3 overexpression increased kahweol-mediated cleaved PARP, while ATF3 knockdown attenuated the cleavage of PARP by kahweol. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and GSK3β blocked kahweol-mediated ATF3 expression. The results suggest that kahweol induces apoptosis through ATF3-mediated pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.
Keywords: Activating transcription factor 3, Apoptosis, Coffee, Human colorectal cancer, Kahweol


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