Alyssin and Iberin in Cruciferous Vegetables Exert Anticancer Activity in HepG2 by Increasing Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species and Tubulin Depolymerization
Piman Pocasap1, Natthida Weerapreeyakul2,3,* and Kanjana Thumanu4
1Research and Development in Pharmaceuticals Program, Graduate School, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002,
2Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002,
3Human High Performance and Health Promotion Research Institute (HHP&HP), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002,
4Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization), Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
E-mail: natthida@kku.ac.th
Tel: +66-43-202378, Fax: +66-43-202379
Received: February 12, 2019; Revised: May 19, 2019; Accepted: June 17, 2019; Published online: August 13, 2019.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
To determine the chemopreventive potential of alyssin and iberin, the in vitro anticancer activities and molecular targets of isothiocyanates (ITCs) were measured and compared to sulforaphane in hepatocellular carcinoma cell HepG2. The SR-FTIR spectra observed a similar pattern vis-à-vis the biomolecular alteration amongst the ITCs-treated cells suggesting a similar mode of action. All of the ITCs in this study cause cancer cell death through both apoptosis and necrosis in concentration dependent manner (20-80 µM). We found no interactions of any of the ITCs studied with DNA. Notwithstanding, all of the ITCs studied increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressed tubulin polymerization, which led to cell-cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phase. Alyssin possessed the most potent anticancer ability; possibly due to its ability to increase intracellular ROS rather than tubulin depolymerization. Nevertheless, the structural influence of alkyl chain length on anticancer capabilities of ITCs remains inconclusive. The results of this study indicate an optional, potent ITC (viz., alyssin) because of its underlying mechanisms against hepatic cancer. As a consequence, further selection and development of effective chemotherapeutic ITCs is recommended.
Keywords: Isothiocyanates, Iberin, Alyssin, Reactive oxygen species, Tubulin depolymerization, HepG2


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