Biomol Ther 2018; 26(6): 521-532
Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Dementia
Mi-Young Kim1,†, Kyeongjin Kim1,†, Chang Hyung Hong2,3, Sang Yoon Lee4 and Yi-Sook Jung1,5,*
1College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 16499,
2Department of Psychiatry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499,
3Institute on Aging, Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon 16499,
4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chronic Inflammatory Disease Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499,
5Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-31-219-3501, Fax: +82-31-219-3435
The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: August 14, 2018; Revised: September 27, 2018; Accepted: October 6, 2018; Published online: November 1, 2018.
© The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dementia, characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and a cumulative inability to behave independently, is highly associated with other diseases. Various cardiovascular disorders, such as coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation, are well-known risk factors for dementia. Currently, increasing evidence suggests that sex factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases, including cardiovascular disease and dementia. Recent studies show that nearly two-thirds of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease are women; however, the incidence difference between men and women remains vague. Therefore, studies are needed to investigate sex-specific differences, which can help understand the pathophysiology of dementia and identify potential therapeutic targets for both sexes. In the present review, we summarize sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia by subtypes. This review also describes sex differences in the risk factors of dementia and examines the impact of risk factors on the incidence of dementia in both sexes.
Keywords: Sex difference, Dementia incidence, Dementia prevalence, Cardiovascular risk factors

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